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Tuesday, December 6
 

8:20am

Chadao and Chanoyu: A Comparative Analysis of the Use of Tea Culture by Chinese and Japanese Elite Society as a Prestige Tool
The thesis of this paper is that despite the differences in traditional Chinese and Japanese tea cultures, both cultures had members of their elite society using their tea culture to enhance their own prestige. This paper will focus on the time from the mid-8th century to the early 17th century. Three aspects of tea culture will be discussed in this paper: government, religious, and material culture. The government aspect will deal with tea as used by the Chinese emperors, specifically Emperor Huizong (1100-26) who wrote a treatise on tea. For Japan, the government aspect will focus mostly on the shoguns, the military dictators of feudal Japan who used tea culture to increase their prestige through peaceful means. The religious aspect will focus completely on Buddhism, which featured prominently in East Asian tea culture. For China, the major figure that will be discussed is Ennin, a Japanese Buddhist monk who travelled through China in the 9th century and commented often on tea. Zen Buddhism played a huge role in Japanese tea culture, particularly in the person of Sen no Rikyu (1522-91) who was a devout follower of Zen and a revolutionary figure in the Japanese tea ceremony (chanoyu). Rikyu was a merchant, who would traditionally ranked very low in society, but tea culture increased his otherwise low prestige. The third aspect is material culture, particularly tea bowls, which were viewed as prestigious works of art well worth acquiring in both China and Japan to show off one’s wealth and taste.


Tuesday December 6, 2016 8:20am - 8:40am
014 Whiteside Hall

8:40am

Wilderness Policy From 1964-1984: The Rise And Fall Of Wilderness In Western North Carolina
In the early 20th century a burgeoning awareness regarding the intrinsic value of America’s last remaining wilderness areas began to take shape, and by 1964 the landmark legislation of The Wilderness Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. In Western North Carolina it provided for the formation of six wilderness areas which were designated over the next twenty years. Several legislative acts helped to strengthen these designations, including The Eastern Wilderness Areas Act of 1975. With the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964 came heavy opposition both locally and regionally in Western North Carolina. Timber companies, railroads, locals utilizing these areas for their economic survival, and many others were affected by the Wilderness Act of 1964. Only in the last few decades has scholarship begun to emerge regarding the significant impact the Wilderness Act had on the people, the economy, and the land of Western North Carolina, along with the continued impact it still has today. This thesis paper draws on an analysis of newspaper articles, legislation, interviews, and primary and secondary source works to argue that the future of wilderness areas in Western North Carolina remains precarious due to the continued varied interpretations of both the Wilderness Act and The Eastern Wilderness Areas Act rhetoric, the “commons” mentality of viewing these wilderness areas as semipublic places for local utilization, the subsequent extractive culture still practiced by many in Western North Carolina, and the resistance to having these wilderness areas adjoin private lands.


Tuesday December 6, 2016 8:40am - 9:00am
014 Whiteside Hall

9:00am

The Game Of United States Diplomacy Within The Ottoman Empire: How United States’ Interests In The Ottoman Empire Delayed Its Entrance Into The Great War.
At the outbreak of World War I, the Ottoman Empire expanded its diplomatic ties with many world powers, in hopes of remaining the gateway to the Middle East. The empire remained a target for land acquisition by Britain, France, and Russia through their expansion of imperialist interests. The United States at this time was a budding superpower that established a diplomatic tie with the Ottomans through Henry Morgenthau, the United States diplomat to Constantinople. The United States attempted to use its neutrality and diplomacy to keep the Ottoman Empire out of the Great War, prolonging the eventual Ottoman entry into World War I. The United States created a unique bond with the Ottoman Empire due to its lack of interest in Ottoman lands, but with more of an interest in building an economic, social, and political relationship. Scholars have overlooked the history of the United States’ interests within the Ottoman Empire during the few months leading up to the Great War. This lack of scholarship suggests that scholars do not view the United States’ interests as a story that should be told. However, it is this history that is important because it represents the beginning stages of the United States becoming a global superpower. Using the primary sources from the United States’ National Archives, I hope to discuss the untold history of American interests within the Ottoman Empire.


Tuesday December 6, 2016 9:00am - 9:20am
014 Whiteside Hall

9:20am

“Do It For Your Grandchildren” A Missed Opportunity: The Legacy Of The NCJAR And JACL Divide
The Japanese Reparations Movement also known as the Redress Movement, sought to gain reparations for the relocation and internment of 110,000 Japanese Americans during World War II. These civilians were detained without trial and by executive order. Starting in 1979 with the formation of a research commission, and ending in 1988 with the signing of the Civil Liberties Act, internment was brought into the public eye and reparations were granted. Internment however was never officially and explicitly put on trial in front of the supreme court. The Japanese American Citizens League, and the newly founded, National Council for Japanese American Redress disagreed on what form Redress should take, the JACL pursuing the successful congressional pathway, and the NCJAR pursuing a lawsuit against the Government of the United States. By studying the Washington and Seattle transcripts of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, the JACL newspaper, and the NCJAR newsletter, as well as other documents of communication between these two groups, this paper seeks to examine the dynamics of the split and the Redress movement as a whole, while showing that both sides knew there was a legal loophole left open by not putting internment on trial, but that a disagreement as to the necessity of patching that loophole led to the failed lawsuit.


Tuesday December 6, 2016 9:20am - 9:40am
014 Whiteside Hall

9:40am

The Influence Of Money, Honor, And Property In Edmund Burke’s East Indian Policy
In 1765 kinsmen of Edmund Burke, the famous eighteenth-century British statesman, invested heavily in East India Company stock, which exponentially rose the next 3 years. The Burkes shared money, therefore, Edmund Burke bought an expensive country estate in Beaconsfield in 1768. However, in 1769, news that military conflict had broken out in India reached Britain. This news caused East India Company stocks to plummet which financially ruined Edmund Burke and his kinsmen. Edmund Burke almost lost his new estate which was a crucial component of his growing personal honor. Scholars have long refuted the influence of Burke’s personal life on his politics. This thesis seeks to highlight the importance of Burke’s finances and honor on his East India Company political policy through three aspects of Burke’s life including the importance of his estate, Burke’s desire to secure a venerable reputation to posterity, and a lawsuit against Burke in 1783.


Tuesday December 6, 2016 9:40am - 10:00am
014 Whiteside Hall

10:15am

Choose Your Friends Wisely: Filibuster William Walker's Fall From Power
In the mid-19th century, spurred on by the ideals of Manifest Destiny, American filibusterers looked to Central America for US expansion. Southern Democrats looking for territories in which to expand slavery funded filibuster campaigns and lobbied for annexation of Caribbean and Central American territories. The most renowned of the filibusters, William Walker, invaded Central America with a small military force to attempt a takeover of the government. He succeeded in becoming the president of Nicaragua, and served from July 12, 1856 to May 1, 1857. The bulk of his financial and material support for his endeavor came from pro-slavery expansionists. Though previously known as an abolitionist, Walker allowed these investors and their money to convince him to legalize slavery in Nicaragua. With that decision he lost the support of the Northern states and the United States Government. This research examines government documents, Walker’s correspondence, and both Northern and Southern US newspaper articles to show how Walker’s acquiescence to Pierre Soule, Jane Cazneau, and other pro-slavery expansionists led to the failure of his mission.


Tuesday December 6, 2016 10:15am - 10:35am
014 Whiteside Hall

10:35am

The Blending of Public and Private Interests in Urban Development in 1920s Asheville
Asheville, North Carolina experienced a boom in urban development in the 1920s as a result of the decade’s economic prosperity. Members of the city’s upper class sought to guide urban growth in order to bolster Asheville’s wealth as well as their own. This thesis examines two major development projects in downtown Asheville during the 1920s and analyzes the political and economic motivators of each. The municipal government’s experiment with professional city planning led to a number of major improvements for the city, but its proposal for a grand civic center caused conflict between Asheville’s elite and its mayor John H. Cathey. The upper class used Progressive Era values of interventionist government and civic virtue to pressure the city to erect a monument that promoted their own economic interests in the form of a civic center. As the city’s wealthy and powerful struggled to collaborate over the construction of Asheville’s city-county complex, tycoon E. W. Grove proved for one last time in Asheville the power of Gilded Age laissez-faire capitalists by creating an entirely new commercial district just a few blocks away. Unconcerned with civic ideals, his transformation of the Battery Park hill was more blatantly driven by modern consumerism. These major projects were fundamentally ideologically different, but both represented the common interests of the city’s elite, namely that of promoting Asheville as a prosperous modern city and travel destination.

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Tuesday December 6, 2016 10:35am - 10:55am
014 Whiteside Hall

10:55am

Breaking Racial Barriers: Black Student-Athletes In Western North Carolina High Schools In The 1960’s
The 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision mandated the integration of public spaces. This paper examines the integration of specific high school athletic programs in Western North Carolina. Stephens-Lee High School and Lee Edwards High School merged into the integrated Asheville High School in 1969. Prior to the merging of these two segregated schools, Stephens-Lee, an all black high school, and Lee Edwards, a predominately white high school, segregated not only their students, but also their sports. Before the creation of Asheville High School, Brevard High School achieved full integration, becoming the first integrated team to win a state championship in 1963-1964. This study examines the individual experiences and accomplishments of black high school athletes who attended these four Western North Carolina high schools using oral histories, yearbooks, newspaper articles, and high school records. Furthermore, this study analyzes the varied and individualized experiences black athletes had while attending the schools under examination, demonstrating each athlete’s distinctive experience. These individualized experiences contribute to the discussion of sports integration.

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Tuesday December 6, 2016 10:55am - 11:15am
014 Whiteside Hall